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Types of Therapy Available 

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a widely used therapeutic approach that focuses on the connection between thoughts, feelings and behaviours. Developed by Aaron T. Beck in the 1960s, CBT is based on the idea that our thoughts and beliefs about ourselves, others and the world around us significantly influence our emotions and behaviours.

CBT comprises several different elements - 

1.    Cognitive Restructuring: which involves identifying and challenging negative or unhelpful thought patterns, known as cognitive distortions. Clients learn to recognise these distortions and replace them with more balanced and realistic thoughts. This is much more in depth process than merely replacing a negative thought with a positive one. 

2.    Behavioural Change: This can involve, setting a good daily routine, incorporating things you enjoy and learning new ways to react to stressful situations as a way to counteract depression, anxiety or anger. 

3.    Experimentation, Evidence Gathering and Exposure. This can involve trying out new ideas, viewpoints and behaviours, gathering evidence against your old beliefs or for new ones, or gradually exposing yourself to anxiety inducing situations. 

4.    A combination of all of the above is necessary for CBT to be effective. 

5.    Homework Assignments: This is a fundamental part of CBT. You may be asked to keep a thought and feelings diary, a journal or to actively find and log evidence against your unhelpful thinking patterns. 

6.    Time-Limited: CBT is often designed to be a relatively short-term therapy, with a focus on helping clients achieve specific goals within a specific time frame. Typically, you can expect to have 8-16 sessions, ideally weekly at first, as we work together to identify the core beliefs that need to change and you learn the necessary skills. 

Dialectical Behaviour Therapy 

Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) is a type of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) that was developed by psychologist Dr. Marsha Linehan in the late 1980s. It was originally designed to treat individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), a condition characterized by intense emotional dysregulation, unstable relationships, and impulsive behaviour. However, DBT has since been adapted and proven effective for treating a range of mental health issues, including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, substance abuse, self harm and other conditions involving emotional dysregulation.

Traditionally, DBT was delivered as group skills training sessions running alongside one to one therapy. As you will only be working with me, your sessions will combine skills training as well as therapy. As with CBT, you will be asked to do homework assignments and keep a diary of your emotions and actions over the week.

DBT skills cover four main areas,


Distress Tolerance

Emotion regulation

Interpersonal Effectiveness. 

DBT is a longer term therapy, taking between 9-12 months of weekly sessions and sometimes even longer than this. Sessions can in some circumstances be held every two weeks. 

Schema Therapy.

Schema therapy is a therapeutic approach that integrates concepts and techniques from cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy and experiential therapy. It was developed by psychologist Dr. Jeffrey E. Young in the 1980s as a way to address deeply ingrained and persistent emotional and behavioural patterns, often referred to as "schemas."

Schemas are early unhelpful or unrealistic  core beliefs and patterns that develop in childhood due to unmet emotional needs, traumatic experiences, or other factors. These schemas influence the way individuals perceive themselves, others, and the world around them. They can lead to various emotional and interpersonal difficulties, including depression, anxiety, relationship issues, and personality disorders.

Schema therapy aims to identify and address these unhelpful schemas by providing a comprehensive and integrative approach. The therapy typically involves the following key components:

1.    Schema Assessment: The therapist helps the individual identify their core beliefs, early experiences, and emotional triggers that contribute to their current emotional and behavioural patterns. This often involves exploring childhood memories and significant life events.

2.    Cognitive Restructuring: Similar to CBT, schema therapy involves challenging and modifying distorted or negative thought patterns associated with unhelpful or unrealistic schemas. This helps individuals develop more balanced and realistic perspectives.

3.    Emotional Regulation: Schema therapy recognizes the importance of addressing the strong emotions associated with the identified schemas. Techniques such as imagery, emotional exploration, and mindfulness are used to help individuals process and regulate these emotions.

4.    Behavioural Techniques: Beyond cognitive work, schema therapy involves behavioural exercises and experiments aimed at breaking the cycle of maladaptive behaviour. This may include practising new ways of interacting with others or facing feared situations.

5.    Experiential Techniques: These techniques focus on accessing and reprocessing the emotions linked to early experiences that contributed to the development of schemas. These could involve imagery, creative writing or drawing or inner child work. 

Schema therapy is a longer-term therapy compared to some other approaches due to the deep-seated nature of the issues it addresses. 

Dialectical Behaviour Therapy. 

Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) is a type of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) that was developed by psychologist Dr. Marsha Linehan in the late 1980s. It was originally designed to treat individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), a condition characterised by intense emotional dysregulation, unstable relationships, and impulsive behaviour. However, DBT has since been adapted and proven effective for treating a range of mental health issues, including depression, anxiety, eating disorders, substance abuse, and other conditions involving emotional dysregulation.

DBT is a comprehensive therapeutic approach that combines cognitive-behavioural techniques with mindfulness and acceptance strategies. The main components of DBT include:


Distress Tolerance

Emotion Regulation

Interpersonal Effectiveness 

Traditionally, DBT was delivered as group skills training along with one to one therapy. In our sessions, we combine both aspects together. 

DBT is a longer term therapy and you can typically expect to have 9-12 months of weekly sessions, sometimes longer. Sessions can sometimes be held every two weeks depending on your progress through the therapy. 


Hypno-psychotherapy, also known as hypnotherapy or clinical hypnosis, is a therapeutic approach that combines elements of psychotherapy with the use of hypnosis. It involves utilising hypnosis as a tool to facilitate psychological healing and change. Hypnosis is a state of focused attention and heightened suggestibility, during which individuals are more open to different ways of viewing things and can access their subconscious mind more readily.

In hypno-psychotherapy, a trained therapist guides the client into a state of hypnosis and then incorporates therapeutic techniques to address a wide range of psychological and emotional issues. The combination of hypnosis and psychotherapy can be used to explore and resolve underlying thoughts, feelings, and beliefs that may be contributing to the client's challenges.

Key aspects of hypno-psychotherapy include:

1.    Induction and Deepening: The therapist uses relaxation and visualisation techniques to induce a state of hypnosis. Clients are guided into a deepened state of relaxation and heightened focus, allowing them to access their subconscious mind more effectively.

2.    Exploration: Hypno-psychotherapy can be used to explore the client's subconscious thoughts, memories and emotions. Clients may uncover underlying causes of their challenges, gain insights into their behaviour, and work through unresolved issues.

3.    Reframing: The therapist helps the client reframe negative or maladaptive thought patterns by introducing new perspectives and cognitive restructuring techniques. This can lead to changes in how the client perceives and responds to various situations.

5.    Visualisation and Imagery: Hypno-psychotherapy often involves using guided imagery and visualisation exercises to create positive mental images and experiences. This can help clients rehearse new behaviours, overcome fears, or enhance relaxation.

What Hypno-psychotherapy CANNOT do:

1.     Recover lost memories. 

2.     Plant new beliefs into your head without you doing the psychotherapeutic work needed to change those beliefs 

3.     Provide a quick fix. 

Hypno-psychotherapy can help you achieve change slightly quicker than standard psychotherapy as we can sometimes identify your key issues sooner. You can expect to have around 8-12 sessions for effective long lasting results. 

Cognitive Analytic Therapy

Cognitive Analytic Therapy (CAT) is a type of psychotherapy that combines elements from cognitive therapy and psychodynamic therapy approaches. It was developed by Dr. Anthony Ryle in the late 1980s and is primarily used as a time-limited intervention for individuals dealing with emotional and psychological difficulties. CAT is often used to address a range of mental health issues, including depression, anxiety and relationship problems. 

CAT is a collaborative therapy, where therapist and client work together to identify, understand and change maladaptive thought and behaviour patterns. 

CAT integrates techniques from cognitive therapy (identifying and challenging distorted thoughts), psychodynamic therapy (exploring unconscious processes), and relational therapy (focusing on the therapeutic relationship and interpersonal dynamics).

CAT as a therapeutic process usually lasts 16-24 sessions. 

Drawing and Talking 

Drawing and Talking" is a therapeutic approach primarily used with children, adolescents and adults, to help them express and process their emotions, thoughts and experiences through the use of drawing. It is a creative and non-verbal method that allows young individuals to communicate and explore their inner world in a more indirect and comfortable way.

The basic idea behind Drawing and Talking is that drawing can serve as a form of symbolic communication, enabling children who might struggle with verbal expression to convey their feelings and experiences. This method can be particularly helpful for those who have experienced trauma, are dealing with emotional difficulties, or have difficulty articulating their thoughts and feelings verbally.

Here's a general outline of how Drawing and Talking typically works:

  1. Therapeutic Relationship: A trained therapist establishes a safe and trusting relationship with the child or adolescent, providing them with a supportive environment to explore their feelings.

  2. Drawing: The child is given paper and pencil to create drawings. They are encouraged to draw whatever comes to mind, without the pressure of creating a specific image or adhering to any artistic standards.

  3. Talking: As the child draws, they are encouraged to talk about what they are creating. This might involve describing the characters, scenes and feelings associated with their drawings. The therapist does not analyse the drawings as in Art Therapy. 

  4. With adults, it is often accompanied with other tools such as creative story writing

  5. Processing: Through discussions about the drawings, the child can begin to process, often unconsciously, their traumatic experiences and any associated emotions. 

  6. Empowerment: Drawing and Talking can empower children by giving them a way to express themselves that feels less intimidating than direct verbal communication. It can also help them develop a sense of agency and control over their emotions and experiences.

  7. Drawing and Talking is a set number of 12 sessions of 30 minutes. For adults, if accompanied with counselling or psychotherapy, it is a set number of 12 sessions of 60 minutes.

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